Page 1 of 1

"Manuel complet des jeux de société" by Mme. Celnart (1836)

PostPosted: Mon Jan 30, 2012 4:42 pm
by Edwin Corrie
Here's an old French book on games and amusements which contains a short section on paperfolding on pages 321 to 322.

http://books.google.ch/books?id=85FJAAA ... &q&f=false

I've extracted the relevant pages and done a translation to go with it (see attached document). The explanation is not very clear, but it seems to be describing the "cocotte" or "pajarita" with variations. The French "corne" means "dog-ear" (like on the corner of a page), and folding four "dog-ears" is presumably a reference to blintzing.

I also found a Spanish translation of Mme. Celnart's book called "Manuel complete de juegos de sociedad" by D. Mariano de Rementería y Fica (1839). For some unknown reason it omits the section on paperfolding but does include some models made by folding and cutting playing cards, which are also in the French version, just before the paperfolding chapter. These go from the bottom of page 203 ("Labores de naipes") to page 210.

http://books.google.fr/books?id=BmSfQXQ ... &q&f=false

Edwin

Re: "Manuel complet des jeux de société" by Mme. Celnart (18

PostPosted: Mon Jan 30, 2012 10:05 pm
by Joan Sallas
Thanks again Edwin for your research and translation work on old french and spanish paperfolding books.

As I read from an old book shop in abebooks, Elisabeth Celnarts book „Manuel complet des Jeux de Société, renfermant tous les jeux qui conviennent aux jeunes gens des deux sexes“ was published in the 1820s by the editor Nicolas-Edme Roret in Paris as a part of popular series of encyclopedic manuals. Roret published it as own book almost in 1827 (1st ed., 403 p. See also the picture here), 1830 (2nd ed., 396 p.), 1836 (3th ed. „revue, corrigée et augmentée", 392 p.), 1846 (344 p.) and 1867 (320 p.).

The explanation that this book is apropiate for young people of both sex («jeunes gens des deux sexes») its a direct pedagogical consequence of the French Revolution. In this time, they emphasized it frequently in french paperfolding and paperworks books (and other matters), as in A. de Bécourt «Art de fabriquer toutes sortes d'ouvrages en papier, pour l'instruction et l'amusement des jeunes gens des deux sexes» (Paris: Audot, 1828).

After consult the 1st edition (1827) in the Padore-Library, I confirm that the section about paperfolding is the same as the 3rd edition, and I assume that the 2nd edition had the same text too. Until now it's no explanation for Edwins observation why the spanish edition „Manual completo de juegos de sociedad o tertúlia, o de prendas“ (Madrid: Norberto Llorenci, 2nd ed. „corregida y augmentada“ 1839) translated by Mariano de Rementería y Fica don't include this paperfolding section.

Curiously, the translation of the paperfolding section appairs in other spanish book, One of the numerous french pedagogical books translated into spanish in the 19th century (and until the begin of the 20th century), «Juegos de los niños. Traducido de los mejores manuales acabados de publicar en Paris por R. C.» (Madrid, 1847), translated for another unknow person ("R. C."), contents a short section about paperfolding too (pages 59-61). Without doubt that's a free translation of the paperfolding section in „Manuel complet des Jeux de Société“ (1836). As in Celnarts book, the cocotte is the only one model (so unclair) described, but without the two variations "l'oiseau en bateau" (bird in boats) and "petits soufflets" (little bellows). They are mentioned four models as cajoncitos (boxes), espejos (mirrors), mesas (tables), carros (carriages) that we can easy identify as variations of the blintz base too. Here the full text:

"Pajaritas y otras figuras de papel doblado.
Estas figuras pueden también formar un juego doble, es decir, por una parte la distracción y prepararlas; y por otra pueden contribuir con los recortes de naipes, á hacer las sombras chinescas; pero estas figuras son menos bonitas, menos variadas y menos propias para el juego precedente, que los recortes de naipes: sin embargo es necesario variar para que haya donde escojer, diremos el modo de formar una pajarita. Se toma un pedazo de papel y se cuadra perfectamente: en seguida se dobla por la mitad á lo largo y se vuelve á doblar por el medio transversalmente, formando así cuatro hojas cuadradas. Cada una de las cuatro puntas se dobla por la mitad, hacia el centro, como cuando se dobla la hoja de un libro; vuelve á doblarse el papel á lo largo y á lo ancho como antes, y se repite la misma maniobra tres veces: á la tercera se coje la punta del centro de uno de los cuadrados y se estiende hácia afuera deshaciendo el pliegue; lo mismo se hace con el cuadrado del lado opuesto, y ambas puntas son las patas de la pájara; igual operación se hace con una de las otras dos puntas, que formará cola; la última que resta no se desdobla, y figura la cabeza: en seguida se dobla el cuerpo por medio de manera que caiga una pata sobre la otra, se pasan los pliegues por entre los dedos pulgar é índice de la mano derecha para prensarlos un poco, y queda formada la pájara.
Del mismo modo, y con solo la diferencia de aumentar dobleces, hacerlos en otra dirección ó sacas las puntas por diferentes lados, hacen los niños cajoncitos, espejos, mesas, carros, etc., cuya descripción seria muy larga.
"

Mariano de Rementería y Fica translated the french text into spanish mainly from Celnarts book, but as in foreword explained, some parts are from another french book: „Le savant de societé" (Paris: Michelet, 1802). This other french book appairs 1816 writed by P. J. Charrin with the undertitle "petite encyclopédie des jeux familiers". It will be interesting to have a look in this edition. Here some editions of the spanish book „Manual completo": 1831 (1st), 1839 (2nd), 1847 (3rd), 1855 (4th), a edition in 1867, and another in 1874.

The french-spanish folding connexion it's really a very interesting subject to research. Perhaps this connexion is the origin of the call of the pajarita and cocotte as a bird in spanish and french languages, diferencied from other cultures/languages that see in this model other animals as grashopper in dutch (sprinkhaan), horse in german (Ross, Pferd), english (hobby-horse) and catalan (cavallet), or dog in japanish (犬).

It's too very interesting to see that this kind of documents prove that Friedrich Fröbel (1782-1852), which published first 1826 his main work „Die Menschenerziehung“ with many mentions to paperfolding as educative method, was strong influenced for the european folding tradition of his time, and specially for the blintz base and their variations.

Joan